- Introduction ::BruneiBackground:The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in Asia.Geography ::BruneiLocation:Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and MalaysiaGeographic coordinates:4 30 N, 114 40 EArea:total: 5,765 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 173land: 5,265 sq kmwater: 500 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly smaller than DelawareLand boundaries:total: 381 kmborder countries: Malaysia 381 kmCoastline:161 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median lineClimate:tropical; hot, humid, rainyTerrain:flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in westElevation extremes:lowest point: South China Sea 0 mhighest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 mNatural resources:petroleum, natural gas, timberLand use:arable land: 0.52%permanent crops: 0.87%other: 98.61% (2011)Irrigated land:10 sq km (2003)Total renewable water resources:8.5 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.09 cu km/yr (97%/0%/3%)per capita: 301.6 cu m/yr (2009)Natural hazards:typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rareEnvironment - current issues:seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in IndonesiaEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollutionsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within MalaysiaPeople and Society ::BruneiNationality:noun: Bruneian(s)adjective: BruneianEthnic groups:Malay 66.3%, Chinese 11.2%, indigenous 3.4%, other 19.1% (2004 est.)Languages:Malay (official), English, ChineseReligions:Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 10%Population:415,717 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 174Age structure:0-14 years: 24.6% (male 52,761/female 49,538)15-24 years: 17.5% (male 35,879/female 36,767)25-54 years: 46.8% (male 94,827/female 99,779)55-64 years: 7.3% (male 15,594/female 14,642)65 years and over: 3.8% (male 7,767/female 8,163) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 42 %youth dependency ratio: 36 %elderly dependency ratio: 6.1 %potential support ratio: 16.4 (2013)Median age:total: 29 yearsmale: 28.7 yearsfemale: 29.2 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:1.67% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 71Birth rate:17.63 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 107Death rate:3.43 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 215Net migration rate:2.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 34Urbanization:urban population: 76% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 2.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) 241,000note: the boundaries of the capital city were expanded in 2007, greatly increasing the city area; the population of the capital increased tenfold (2011)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female55-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/femaletotal population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Maternal mortality rate:24 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 133Infant mortality rate:total: 10.81 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 140male: 12.89 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 8.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.57 yearscountry comparison to the world: 76male: 74.28 yearsfemale: 78.97 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:1.83 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 151Health expenditures:2.8% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 182Physicians density:1.42 physicians/1,000 population (2008)Hospital bed density:2.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2003 est.)country comparison to the world: 114HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:fewer than 200 (2003 est.)country comparison to the world: 159HIV/AIDS - deaths:fewer than 200 (2003 est.)country comparison to the world: 114Obesity - adult prevalence rate:7.5% (2008)country comparison to the world: 141Education expenditures:3.3% of GDP (2012)country comparison to the world: 133Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 95.4%male: 97%female: 93.9% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 yearsmale: 15 yearsfemale: 16 years (2011)Government ::BruneiCountry name:conventional long form: Brunei Darussalamconventional short form: Bruneilocal long form: Negara Brunei Darussalamlocal short form: BruneiGovernment type:constitutional sultanate (locally known as Malay Islamic Monarchy)Capital:name: Bandar Seri Begawangeographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 Etime difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei-Muara, Temburong, TutongIndependence:1 January 1984 (from the UK)National holiday:National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protectionConstitution:29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)Legal system:mixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic lawInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCtSuffrage:18 years of age for village elections; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state (Yang Di-Pertuan Agong) and head of governmenthead of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: none; the monarchy is hereditaryLegislative branch:the Sultan appointed a Legislative Council with 29 members in September 2005; he increased the size of the council to 33 members in June 2011; the council meets annually in Marchelections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)note: the Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20 years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; it passed constitutional amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members; no timeframe for an election was announcedJudicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of Court of Appeal and High Court, each with a chief justice and 2 judges); Sharia Court of Appeal (consists of judges appointed by the monarch)note - Brunei has a dual judicial system of secular and sharia (religious) courts; the Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London serves as the final appellate court for civil cases onlyjudge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch to serve until age 65, and older if approved by the monarch; Sharia Court of Appeal judges appointed by the monarch; judge tenure NAsubordinate courts: Intermediate Court; Magistrate's Courts; Juvenile Court; small claims courts; lower sharia courts (2006)Political parties and leaders:National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activityPolitical pressure groups and leaders:NAInternational organization participation:ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CP, EAS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Dato Yusoff Abd HAMIDchancery: 3520 International Court NW #300, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 237-1838FAX:  (202) 885-0560Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel L. SHIELDS IIIembassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Kebangsaan, Bandar Seri Begawan, BC4115mailing address: Unit 4280, Box 40, FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalamtelephone:  238-4616FAX:  238-4604Flag description:yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate; the white and black bands denote Brunei's chief ministers; the emblem includes five main components: a swallow-tailed flag, the royal umbrella representing the monarchy, the wings of four feathers symbolizing justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace, the two upraised hands signifying the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people, and the crescent moon denoting Islam, the state religion; the state motto ""Always render service with God's guidance"" appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent reads ""Brunei, the Abode of Peace""National anthem:name: ""Allah Peliharakan Sultan"" (God Bless His Majesty)lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Pengiran Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagapnote: adopted 1951Economy ::BruneiEconomy - overview:Brunei has a small well-to-do economy that depends on revenue from natural resource extraction but encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for 60% of GDP and more than 90% of exports. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. For Bruneian citizens the government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level. The government of Brunei has been emphasizing through policy and resource investments it strong desire to diversity its economy both within the oil and gas sector and to new sectors.GDP (purchasing power parity):$22.04 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 127$21.76 billion (2011 est.)$21.29 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$16.63 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:1.3% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1512.2% (2011 est.)2.6% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$55,300 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 11$55,400 (2011 est.)$55,000 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 20.7%government consumption: 18%investment in fixed capital: 14.1%investment in inventories: 0%exports of goods and services: 78.9%imports of goods and services: -31.7%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 0.6%industry: 71.7%services: 27.7% (2011 est.)Agriculture - products:rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggsIndustries:petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, transportationIndustrial production growth rate:0.1% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 134Labor force:205,800 (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 169Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 4.2%industry: 62.8%services: 33% (2008 est.)Unemployment rate:2.6% (2011)country comparison to the world: 212.7% (2010)Population below poverty line:NA%Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%highest 10%: NA%Budget:revenues: $7.363 billionexpenditures: $5.122 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:44.3% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 27Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):13.5% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 5Fiscal year:1 April - 31 MarchInflation rate (consumer prices):0.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 72.1% (2011 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:5.5% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1505.5% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$3.509 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 111$3.255 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$11.62 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 101$10.64 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$2.266 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 134$1.33 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$NACurrent account balance:$3.977 billion (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 30Exports:$12.75 billion (2011)country comparison to the world: 84$9.88 billion (2010)Exports - commodities:crude oil, natural gas, garmentsExports - partners:Japan 46.5%, South Korea 15.5%, Australia 9.3%, India 7%, NZ 6.7% (2012)Imports:$3.02 billion (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 144$2.73 billion (2010 est.)Imports - commodities:iron and steel, motor vehicles, machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicalsImports - partners:Singapore 26.3%, China 21.3%, UK 21.3%, Malaysia 11.8% (2012)Debt - external:$0 (2005)country comparison to the world: 202Exchange rates:Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar -1.2496 (2012 est.)1.2579 (2011 est.)1.3635 (2010 est.)1.45 (2009)Energy ::BruneiElectricity - production:3.723 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 125Electricity - consumption:3.391 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 130Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 169Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 165Electricity - installed generating capacity:894,000 kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 124Electricity - from fossil fuels:100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 9Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 57Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 161Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 115Crude oil - production:166,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 41Crude oil - exports:155,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 33Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 164Crude oil - proved reserves:1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 40Refined petroleum products - production:14,720 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 101Refined petroleum products - consumption:14,640 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 144Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 158Refined petroleum products - imports:1,016 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 193Natural gas - production:11.8 billion cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 40Natural gas - consumption:2.97 billion cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 72Natural gas - exports:8.83 billion cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 22Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 167Natural gas - proved reserves:390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 34Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:8.271 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 106Communications ::BruneiTelephones - main lines in use:79,800 (2011)country comparison to the world: 151Telephones - mobile cellular:443,200 (2011)country comparison to the world: 168Telephone system:general assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the USdomestic: every service availableinternational: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network provides new links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)Broadcast media:state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 5 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite and cable systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks and broadcasts on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters (2009)Internet country code:.bnInternet hosts:49,457 (2012)country comparison to the world: 96Internet users:314,900 (2009)country comparison to the world: 128Transportation ::BruneiAirports:1 (2013)country comparison to the world: 213Airports - with paved runways:total: 1over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)Heliports:3 (2013)Pipelines:condensate 33 km; condensate/gas 86 km; gas 628 km; oil 492 km (2013)Roadways:total: 3,029 kmcountry comparison to the world: 166paved: 2,425 kmunpaved: 604 km (2010)Waterways:209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong rivers are major transport links) (2012)country comparison to the world: 97Merchant marine:total: 9country comparison to the world: 115by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 8foreign-owned: 2 (UK 2) (2010)Ports and terminals:major seaport(s): Muaraoil/gas terminal(s): Lumut, SeriaMilitary ::BruneiMilitary branches:Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2013)Military service age and obligation:17 years of age for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve; recruits from the army, navy, and air force all undergo 43-week initial training (2013)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 112,688females age 16-49: 117,536 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 95,141females age 16-49: 99,386 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 3,572female: 3,465 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:2.4% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 58Transnational Issues ::BruneiDisputes - international:per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Louisa ReefRefugees and internally displaced persons:stateless persons: 21,009 (2012); note - thousands of stateless persons, often ethnic Chinese, are permanent residents and their families have lived in Brunei for generations; obtaining citizenship is difficult and requires individuals to pass rigorous tests on Malay culture, customs, and language; stateless residents receive an International Certificate of Identity, which enables them to travel overseas; the government is considering changing the law prohibiting non-Bruneians, including stateless permanent residents, from owning landIllicit drugs:drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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